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Blistering

Description:
You can clearly identify inclusions (blisters) within the base material on the left and right of the through-hole. Blisters are local separations between the layers of the base material (inclusions of air, solvent, humidity). In general, these defects are tolerated,if detected at all.

Causes/Remedy:
  • deficiency in the production of the base material
  • inadequately high temperature stress during soldering

Source: Microsection
Blisters within base material

Description:
Detailed view of previous example

Causes/Remedy:
  • deficiency in the production of the base material
  • inadequately high temperature stress during soldering

Source: Microsection
Blisters within base material - detailed view
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