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Example investigations

Here you will find an overview of some of our in-house analytic investigations.

This is only a very small extract of our activities.
  • Microscopical examination
    Microscopical examination
  • Solder fault analysis
    Solder fault analysis
  • Optical inspection
    Optical inspection
  • Failure analysis
    Failure analysis

Optically apparent wetting faults in the soldering process

The optical inspection was carried out with the naked eye and at a stereo microscope with varying light settings
▸ Wetting faults reflow soldering
Wetting faults reflow soldering
Wetting defect after wave soldering
Wetting faults reflow soldering
Wetting defect after wave soldering
▸ Disturbed wetting of pads
▸ Dark pad surface due to dewetting
Disturbed wetting of pads
Disturbed wetting of pads
Dewetting
Dewetting
▸ Wetting defect after wave soldering (solder fillet)
▸ Non-wetting on gold layer
Wetting defect after wave soldering (solder fillet)
Wetting defect after wave soldering (solder fillet)
Non-wetting on gold layer
Non-wetting on gold layer

Hidden defects of Solder joints

Hidden defects only become recognizable in a metallographic preparation or after mechanical load.

Pull-Test


Typical test set-up
▸ Pliers
▸ Hook
Pull-test with pliers
Pull-test with pliers
Pull-test with hook
Pull-test with hook
▸ Separation along contact surface, standard-complying soldering
▸ Separation along pad surface, dark pad places
Pull-test - Separation along contact surface - standard-complying soldering
Separation along contact surface - standard-complying soldering
Pull-test - Separation along pad surface - dark pad places
Separation along pad surface - dark pad places
“Black Pad“ is often and commonly used to describe an unspecific adhesion deficiency of the solder fillet on the NiP-layer. “Black Pad“ is therefore some sort of a general term for phenomena which lead to optically standard-infringing or mechanically instable solder joints on NiAu surfaces.
The discoloration of the NiPsurface which accounts for the name of this phenomenon can but must not forcibly occur. Since there are also other phenomena causing adhesion deficiencies, it es better not to talk of “Black-Pad” right away in order to avoid premature judgement.

Thermographic records with high precision

▸ Detection of hotspots
▸ Measuring of junction temperatures
▸ Optimization of PCB designs
Thermographic imaging
Thermographic imaging
Qualification of components
Qualification of components

Ionic contamination

▸ Identification of the NaCl-equivalent
▸ optical inspection befor and after the test
Ionic contamination - befor test
Ionic contamination - befor test
Ionic contamination - after test
Ionic contamination - after test

Dye and Pry Test of BGAs

▸ BGA after applying dye (first image)
▸ View of PCB side after lifting off BGA (second image)
dye and pry Test - BGA after applying dye
dye and pry Test - BGA after applying dye
dye and pry Test - view after lifting off BGA
dye and pry Test - view after lifting off BGA
▸ Detail: Separation areas (partially) covered with colorant indicating the presence of cracks or non-wetting
Attention: Dye must be cured. Otherwise there is the danger of misinterpretation.
dye and pry Test - separations covered with dye
separations covered with dye
dye and pry Test - separations covered with dye
separations covered with dye

Ceramic capacitor faults

▸ Bad placing or bad alignment along mechanical folding lines of the PCB
▸ Deformation at handling or transport
▸ Deformation during assembly
▸ Cracks due to thermal stress
Ceramic capacitor - microsection
Ceramic capacitor - microsection
Ceramic capacitor - microsection
Ceramic capacitor - microsection

Connectors

▸ Testing of influence of humidity and corrosive gases such as NO2 SO2 Cl2 H2S NH3 O3 testing of leak tightness according to IEC 60529
▸ Test of resistance against forming of whiskers according to IEC 60068 and JESD-22-A12 especially on tin surfaces
Connectors
Connectors
SEM
SEM

Inspection of Microsections

Image 1: Extraordinary gold bath corrosion, formation of uninterrupted intermetallic compound after solder contact, phosphor enrichment at boundary with bulk material
Image 2: partial separation, scar formation (v-shaped etch grooves) and normal compound formation
Phosphor enrichment at boundary
Image 1 - Phosphor enrichment at boundary
partial separation, scar formation
Image 2 - partial separation, scar formation
Image 3: Extraordinary gold bath corrosion of unsoldered PCB
Image 4: Evaluation criteria: depth of etch grooves
Gold bath corrosion
Image 3 - Gold bath corrosion
Etch grooves
Image 4 - Etch grooves

X-ray inspection

BGA: overview + detail corner pins

BGA - X-ray overview
BGA - X-ray overview
BGA - X-ray details corner pin
BGA - X-ray details corner pin
▸ Inclined x-ray of BGA balls with good wetting
▸ BGA ball separated from pad
BGA - Inclined x-ray of BGA balls with good wetting
Inclined x-ray of BGA balls with good wetting
BGA - solder ball separated from pad
solder ball separated from pad
Rules and regulations pertaining to X-ray inspections

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